As an observer, I notice that the Guurti are there only for Conflict Resolutions but what I'm more surprised on is however much control the Government of Somaliland has if there is enough rejection from the people they tend to make a U turn.Sri Lance, I thought about the percentage gained in each district and find it won't work cause a-lot of somali districts or regions as most are solely owned by a majority clan. That was the first thing that came to my mind to gain 30% or some figure for a political party at each region but I came across the problem most of the 18 regions are solely settled by a majority tribe and they can easily gain that figure!!!. SL system of including the clan elders is also not the best system, the clan elders should not get involved in politics but keep strictly in the rural matters!!! Infact joining politics is killing off their respect in rural areas but since the system is so strong in rural areas it really hasn't effected it that much untill a 'city' hand brings over its clan wars in the city to the nomads, which honestly is the only disturbance these folks ever had.
We should only ask the clan elders how to design a system that complements the culture, not have them actually involved!!! That is my two cents.
By the way suldanguled, I am with you bro, I am not interested in democracy but what can we do if the people are so gravitated towards it due to 'colonialism' and see no other viable system other then what the 'white man' taught them!!! the best me and you can do is at least design the system so it actually complements our cultures avoiding the pit traps of previous attempts!!!
Don't worry bro, the religious folks will be at the round table. They are apart of the elites themselves. They are big bloc among our 1% along with business community, civil society, politicians, clan elders!!! Don't worry, I will be addressing this sensitive topic yet critical. I for one am not a supporter of leaving these people out of the equation!!! it is sucidal because they can cause so much good and so much bad depending on how we serve them. I want to see all the 1% of our city, sit in a room and indhaha layska riddo and come up with a system that will satisfy us all. I envision a system where religious folks will be strong force and receive presidential nomination from a party to react to any 'religious' sentiments in the country.You can't pick and choose which part of Islam to follow its all or nothing & if you don't believe that legislation is only for Allah then you've committed shirk which is associating partners with Allah I hate to break it to you but you're a gaal
Your totally spot on. I have argued this point from day 1, but it doesn't seem a-lot of somalis understand this. We all know the root cause of our problem is one of trust. If there is no 'socially accepted' contract between a people, I am not sure how u can set up trust to flourish. For example in rural areas they say when two people marry, 'way xeero galeen' lol. Xeer is a social constract!!! That's only for two people that need some sort of sort contract that bestows on them rights yet expects responsibilities and if they fail to deliver on that, there must be a strict consequence applied. Exactly how they handle matters in rural areas, if there wasn't consequences applied for breaches of their 'xeer' it would never foster trust among clans as everyone will just get away with about anything they want. No nomad would be able to achieve his way of life seeking pasture and water resources if all the nomads in each district had no system of trust among themselves to faciliate free movement and sharing of resources like they did in BARI during the drought!!! None of that is feasible if there is no underlying system they all trust and do not doubt it.
I only disagree with one part on you, if we adopt a consequence style constitution that stipulates and enforces punishment for breaches they agree on, it will prevent breaches from happening. Without consequences I am not sure how you going to create confidence and trust among people who are very overtly suspicious of each other and agenda. The goal we want to achieve is resemble the peace and stability of the nomads, once we can get our city folks to enjoy that same level of peace and abide by the system, it's possible to achieve anything and move towards accelerated growth across the country in a very short time frame. When the nomads put peace among themselves thru their system, it allowed them to carry on pursuing their set goals. The only difference the city folks will have is their set goals will be 'development' and this will allow our people to stop fighting the system and head off and carry on development!!![/QUOTE]
You're anti Islam and a sheep a follower your belief democracy can't stand up to my beliefs which is from God himself the creator of all things and I stand on the truth and you stand for falsehood so my foundations are strong Alhamdulillah.Conginitive!!! Your very anti democracy. I am not personal supporter of it myself, but im trying to help the democratic leaning people to bring ideas how their system will fit into our culture, taking note how its failed in 99% non western countries, and has a track record in our country also that can be analyzed!!!
I would love to see you propose a thread how you feel islamism will work in Somalia taking into account our culture, the core values needed in every system such as 'freedom, equality, justice', plus your consequence mechanism if anyone breaks the system!!! I would love to hear you propose that!!! Like I said, I feel any system can work in Somalia as long as it takes into account our cultural realities on the ground and has severe consequences for non compliance and restores trust among the people!!!
I want to see the islamist, secularist, democratist, communist, and me i guess traditionalist(supports local systems since they have proven to work) come to a round table like fagaarah and rip each other eyes out with hard hitting points!!! I hate fagaarah right now as it's dominated by 'secularists'!!!
It shows how little you know about Islam & Islamic history and Muslims in general it's pitiful as a Somali I might aswell be talking to a Zionist from Israel islamist kulaha no there's a big difference between Islam & Islamist al shabaab & other terrorist groups or countries like Iran or Saudia Arabia.I can easily refute that. Those problems in democracy, are also in islamism!!! Your islamic leader will need funds also to convince people to be elected either through a shura or popular vote like iran!!! Finance impacts on all systems and there ways to limit it's impact also like ensuring all parties are given equal amount of funding to campaign through-out the country!!! Once u identify a hole in a system, it's easy fixing it!!! The problem really is identifying a hole that no-one has yet identified and fixing that!!!
You think I don't know democrats get funded by big corporations? especially left leaning corporations(medical, technology, science, engineering) who need high skilled workforce to keep their companies running, which means more investment and subsidy programs into universities, better lower level schooling, etc? while the right want a cheap unskilled workforce for retail/manufacturing/farming and more technical schools to supply that!!! I didn't even read that stuff, I just know a business will always need a supply of workers and where the govt invests into will determine if their will be a 'short supply or a large supply' which will determine 'pay rates'. If a manufacturing plant can only find 10 people in the nation to fill a position, well he is going to have pay top dollar for that labor cause it's in short supply, but if it's a million that is out there, well u can see what can happen? that's why doctors paid higher then a factory worker. It's cause of supply/demand!!! anyone can do factory work(huge pool of labor), only a small segment can be a doctor(they cut out 90% of applicants in universities)
I know every corporation will take care of it's interest to stay afloat in the market place and they know their labor comes from the people which are impacted by the govt direction!!! Im suprised u needed to read that from a blog!!! this is common sense stuff, just put yourself in a business shoe and identify how u will source labor!!!
Somaliland shouldn't be foolish. Foreigners don't understand the importance of qabil. It's engrained within our society, the guurti and other Somali clan systems are intelligent ways to allow a functioning Somali state. Somaliland should create a new branch of government that has power to resolve disputes between clans or tribes. This will allow the somaliland government not to bother with qabil giving its leaders more legitimacy whilst at the same time not ignoring it.In 2001, Somaliland passed a constitution that installed the Guurti, a body of traditional elders, in the upper house, giving them legislative authority. But they have never been elected, and their constitutionally mandated six-year term limits have effectively been ignored. Now, leaders across Somaliland are in serious discussions about how best to reform the body to avoid a constitutional crisis.
What is the Guurti?
"The Guurti is a traditional forum for elders for mediation," Edward Paice, director at the Africa Research Institute in London, told IRIN. "Since time immemorial it has been a way of settling disputes."
Elders used to convene under an acacia tree to arbitrate rows, using a customary legal process known in Somali as ‘xeer’. Disputing parties would bring their concerns to the elders, and the proceedings would continue until a resolution was achieved.
Leading up to the fall of Somali president Mohamed Siyad Barre in 1991, Somaliland engaged in a brutal secession war with Somalia. In May 1991, Somaliland declared independence as Somalia dissolved into civil strife and eventual state failure. When Somaliland was torn apart by violence, the Guurti stepped in.
"This was one of the key institutions that was functioning at the time," said Mohamed Farah Hersi, a researcher at the Academy for Peace and Development in Somaliland’s capital, Hargeisa, speaking at an event in Nairobi, Kenya.
Clan elders came together for a number of peace conferences in the early-1990s, the most prominent of which was the Elders Conference at Borama in 1993. This led to the creation of the 82-member Guurti, which formalized the mediation system as a parliamentary body. In Borama, the Guurti also elected Somaliland's president and vice president.
"They were peacemakers for Somaliland," acknowledged Markus ***hne, a strong critic of the contemporary Guurti system and a research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology. "Those guys put their lives on the line. They went to different conflict zones, often at great personal risk."
***hne believes that in the early 1990s, the Guurti was instrumental in rebuilding the country, but says that now the role and composition of the body is outdated.
The Guurti was responsible for drafting Somaliland’s constitution, which was passed in a 2001 referendum by an overwhelming majority.
According the constitution, the Guurti "shall have special responsibility for passing laws relating to religion, traditions (culture) and security", in addition to reviewing legislation passed by the House of Representatives.
"They are the centre of gravity. They are the cornerstone," Adam Haji-Ali Ahmed, director at the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Hargeisa, told IRIN. "One hundred percent of people in Somaliland trust the Guurti. They preach about peace."
Why was the Guurti so effective?
Somaliland has a large number of clans and sub-clans, each of which has its own structure of authority. Because its 3.85 million people are spread out over a large area - 55 percent of people are nomadic - governing from a central administration is tricky.
"We have a highly divided, fragmented society," said Asmahan Abdelsalam Hassan of the NAGAAD Network, Somaliland’s umbrella organization for women's rights groups, at an event in Nairobi. In many areas of Somaliland, customary law is the most effective and often the only way to mediate and address disputes.
To negotiate between warring factions, Somaliland turned to their elders, who were in charge of each group. "They got their authority from customary law, from the clans," said Ahmed.
"They built on traditional mechanisms - there was no one from outside telling them what to do," said Paice. "There is a tradition that no Somali meeting ends until a consensus has been achieved."
The 1993 Borama Conference lasted four months, but it resulted in a comprehensive framework and roadmap for a way forward. A charter with five guiding principles was drawn up, and was used as a temporary governing structure until a constitution was drafted.
Because many of the conference participants had strong ties to the Somali National Movement - the secessionist movement that was key to the formation of Somaliland - they were very effective at coordinating the demobilization and disarmament of rebel groups. This was a crucial step to achieving peace.
"These elders from the different clans want the welfare of their children, and their children after that, to be preserved," Jean-Paul Azam, professor of economics at France's Toulouse School of Economics, told IRIN. "For them, what matters is the collective evolution, what happens to the clan."
Minorities also have significant representation within the Guurti. "One of the main [principles] of the Guurti is inclusivity, that all clans should be included," said Hersi. It is the only decision-making body that rests fundamentally on power-sharing between all groups.
The House of Representatives tends to be dominated by the larger clans, so the Guurti is a crucial mechanism to engage all of Somaliland society. However, since 1993 clan alliances have shifted and clans themselves are no longer drawn along the same lines. This means that the composition of the Guurti will need to change if it is to reflect all of Somaliland.
So, what’s the problem?
The Guurti has never been elected. If a clan elder dies or retires, the seat is passed down to one of his descendants. This, many feel, is undermining the legitimacy of the body.
"Many of the experienced people and the old people have died," said Ahmed. "The young people are coming who know nothing about the culture, about customary law, about the history of Somaliland."
The constitution provides no direction on how Guurti members should be chosen, saying simply that "the members of the House of Elders shall be elected in a manner to be determined by law." A law governing this decision has yet to be drafted.
"We believe that Somaliland's democratization has made tremendous progress. But there are many challenges ahead with the Guurti,” said Mohamed A. Mohamoud, executive director of the Somaliland Non-State Actors Forum (SONSAF).
There are also accusations that the Guurti has lost independence and now bows to pressure from the president. Its unilateral decision to postpone presidential elections in 2008 was viewed by many as a sign that their impartiality had been compromised.
"A lot of the descendants of the original members see it as a business opportunity. That's not in keeping with the original ethos," Paice told IRIN. Traditionally, elders were not paid for their services on peace-keeping and arbitration.
In addition, many consider the Guurti ill-equipped to handle some of their legislative responsibilities. "There is by no means universal literacy in the Guurti," Paice added. "If it's a 450-page finance bill, this is problematic."
"Tradition is very important for peace-building, but not for state-building," noted Hersi. "Elders can build peace, but they cannot build a state."
Some analysts say the Guurti needs to be more gender-inclusive in its representation. Traditionally, women are not appointed clan elders, and the first House of Elders after Borama was an all-male body. Since then, a few women have inherited seats from their husbands, but they still represent a very small minority.
"Cultural and religious misperceptions undermine women's political participation," said the NAGAAD Network's Hassan. She argues that while women play an important mediation role in within Somaliland society, they are significantly underrepresented in terms of political participation. She also points out that because women were not included in the drafting of the constitution, no special protections for them exist within the current legislative framework.
NAGAAD and other civil society organizations lobbied for a bill in parliament that introduced the idea of reserved quotas for women and minorities for elected positions. Although the proposed legislation had the support of the current president, it was thrown out by the House of Representatives.
Hebel hebel said this kulaha I quoted the Quran kkkk you're clutching at straws I presented you with facts and all you have is emotions what you feel and how it makes others feel and how we feel my g forget how we feel and present the evidence.Cognitive, Like I Said wait for my topic on Islam and Somalia!!! I am sure you will give me a brutal beat down. But the way I will explain it will relate to what people can see with their own eyes, and contemplate with their own minds. Not just 'hebel hebel' san yiri, which unfortunately is all your doing!!! I feel even your interpretation of Islam is just 'hebel hebel' said this because he said the prophet said this even if it goes against our 'mind'. If an islamic scholar said to you, the prophet narrated 'the sun is a monkey' you will come back and just say this is the truth!!! when we know the sun is surely no dog cause it contradicts everything our mind tells us.
Alot of Islam has had human hands in it for certain agendas to be achieved, especially in the early islamic caliphate, the quran itself is perfect, it's human interpretation which isn't and they have interpreted it where part suits them for their own agendas of the day. Even this salafist you see today, have an agenda and always did. If they were so muslims, they wouldn't of fought the caliphate which is haram and side with infidels. I will go into this topic of islam and somalia more deeply at some other time. But just know this, it isn't a miracle why early somali islam was more sufistic(ottoman influence) and now all of a sudden more (salafist). Finance plays a big role and you islamists are not immune either!!! lets just leave it at that