Islamic Survival in the Deep South-Fulani influence on (proto/foundational/plantation)African-American culture.
Linguistic - ""As regards numerals, I interview serval older Gullahs(SE coastal African-Americans), each of whom could count from one to nineteen in the Fula language. Usually the Gullahs did not know the name of the language in which they counted, but said that they learned the numerals from older relatives or friends. A few unknowingly, would draw upon two or more African languages in counting from on to ten.""
- Lorenzo Dow Turner, Ph.D academic & linguist.
American cowboy(cattle ranching) culture
Music- An old unique blues style in the Northern Mississippi hill country called Northern Mississippi Fife and Drum blues, is an offshoot of Fulani Flute and drum music. In fact, the physical construction of the blues fife played in Northern MS is based on an old African model brought over by the transatlantic slave trade. The construction process mimics that of the of Fula flute. A musician typically cuts a piece of cane about a foot in length, then a heated iron rod is used to bore out the cane, and finally the same rod is used to make the fingering and embouchure holes of the fife. No formal measure of spacing either between the embouchure hole and the fingering holes or between each of the fingering holes is used. Instead, the musicians use their hands as guides for construction, resulting in instruments that have slightly individualized scales, none of which are based on a classical Western model.