Sultan Olol Dinle and his Somali delegation visiting a Nazi/Fascist rally in Italy in 1938

Discussion in 'History' started by SultanuuFicaan, Mar 30, 2018.

  1. Grant

    Grant

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    Somebody is messing with Wiki and Wikiwand. Fakr ad-Din is post 1250 AD.

    [​IMG]
    https://archnet.org/sites/3781

    "The Mosque of Fakhr al-Din, built by the first Sultan of Mogadishu in the thirteenth century, indicates formal architectural design. It is built in a compact rectangular plan with a strong, domed mihrab axis and a lofty prayer hall. Its use of conical vaults, the finely squared coral blocks of its construction, and the transitions of curved pendentives in place of squinches, further attest to the fine attention to detail and artistry at Fakhr ad-Din. The mosque, together with Husuni Kubwa on the island of Kilwa, are the two earliest remaining buildings on the East African coast and reveal planning more sophisticated than anything for centuries subsequent. Today Fakhr al-Din Mosque is located between the quarters of Xamar Weyn and Sheikh Muumin in the Somali capital city.



    Saint Abadir is said to have arrived in Harar iin 1216.

    ttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abadir_Umar_ar-Rida

    Ar-Rida is the main figure in the Fath Madinat Harar, an unpublished history of Harar in the 13th century. According to the account, he along with several other religious leaders traveled from the Hijaz region of present-day Saudi Arabia to Harar in 612H (1216 AD).[2] Ar-Rida subsequently married a Harari woman, and constructed the city's Jamia mosque.[1].

    Here is the older version:


    http://www.wow.com/wiki/Sultanate_of_Mogadishu

    "According to the 16th century explorer Leo Africanus, the Mogadishu Sultanate (Magadazo) was the principal city-state within the larger Adea Kingdom, located south of the Adal Sultanate and east of the Abyssinian Empire. It was ruled by an Islamic aristocracy, which paid tribute to the Christian king of Abyssinia.[28] Leo Africanus also indicates that the native inhabitants of the Adea polity were of the same origins as the denizens of the northern Adal Sultanate. They were generally of an olive complexion, with some darker. They were shirtless, wearing only sarongs, and used Arabic as a lingua franca. Their weaponry consisted of lances and bows and arrows. Most were Muslims, although a few adhered to heathen bedouin tradition; there were also a number of Abyssinian Christians further inland. Magadazo itself was a wealthy, powerful and well-built city-state, which maintained commercial trade with the sultanates of Aden and Cambay, among other kingdoms.[29] It was surrounded by walled stone fortifications: initially, only towards the hinterland, but later also on the littoral, so as to provide a bulwark against marauding by the pagan Cafri "negroes" of the interior and the early Portuguese explorers, respectively.[30]

    The various Sultans of Mogadishu are mainly known from the Mogadishan currency on which many of their names are engraved. However, their succession dates and genealogical relations are obscure.[31] The founder of the Sultanate was reportedly Fakr ad-Din, who was related to Sheikh Abadir Umar ar-Rida, the patron saint of Harar.[32] While only a handful of the pieces have been precisely dated, the Mogadishu Sultanate's first coins were minted at the beginning of the 14th century, with the last issued around the late 17th century. The following list of the Sultans of Mogadishu is abridged and is primarily derived from these mints.[33] The first of two dates uses the Islamic calendar, with the second using the Julian calendar; single dates are based on the Julian (European) calendar.

    # Sultan Reign Notes
    1 Abu Bakr b. Fakhr ad Din fl 1250 Founder of the Mogadishu Sultanate's first ruling house, the Fakr ad-Din dynasty.
    2 Abu Bakr b. Muhammad fl 722/1322-1323 Ruling Sultan when Ibn Battuta visited the kingdom in 1331.

    ----------------------------------------------------

    If actually interested, I will get back to you about the Geledi and Lamu. :))
     
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  2. AbdiMajad

    AbdiMajad

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    Grant all you're showing is a Benadiri troll of old edits of Wikipedia or that might be you but either way Mogadishu was the Ajuran capital since the 13th century.

    Fakhr al-Din mosque might have been built under the legacy of Fakhr al-Din in the 13th century but Fakhr al-Din was stated to be in the 9th century and he was a local native Somali man from Mogadishu. Ibn Battuta met his decedents who were Somali so you're basically debunking yourself.

    [​IMG]

    (rest of the page is missing but you can deduce what comes next based on context and other sources.)

    And here's from when Ibn Battuta met a Somali from Mogadishu on a journey to Asia.

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]


    He also described Bilad al-Barbar extending from Zeila to Mogadishu. :p

    [​IMG]

    As for southern Somalia. It was governed by the Geledi Sultanate and Hiraab Imamate successor states of the Ajuran Empire. They were in control of southern Somalia from the coast to the interior and the Omani Zanzibar Sultanate were nothing nominal that eventually got militarily defeated and were forced to pay tribute to the Geledi rulers in Lamu.

    "Sultan Yusuf managed to exact tribute from the Omani king in the coastal town of Lamu.[1]"

    Here is the of Omani Zanzibar Sultanate just claiming the land but not ruling it but was in reality governed by local Somali kingdoms which were Geledi Sultanate and Hiraab Imamate, respectively.

    [​IMG]

    I just wish you could be a respectful Anjabi that respects Somali history instead of showing your anti-Somali sentiments and I would have respect for you and so would other Somalis but creating historical revisionist against us is absolutely unrespectful.
     
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  3. Grant

    Grant

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    I don't have any trouble respecting Somali history. It's this misinterpreted and straight up made up qashin that disturbs me. I feel that pointing out the errors are the best thing I can do to respect and protect a history that does not need thefts from elsewhere to be significant and honorable.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Galluweger (Gobroon)

    The House of Galluweger or Gaalaware was a Somali royal house, based in present-day southern Somalia. It established the city-state of Afgooye and the Geledi Sultanate after defeating the Ajuran Empire. The house was founded by a religious and military leader Sheik Yarrow Maaytey, who came to the area to spread the teachings of Islam the Qadiriya Sufi doctrine and an effort to free the people from the Silcis Kingdom. Though there are insufficient writings available on Sheik Yarrow Maaytey, according to oral tradition he was the son of the Sultan of Jilible clan in Bakool region of Somalia.


    History
    Sometime between the 14th century to 17th century, Ajuran Dynasty ruled over much of the Horn of Africa including Somalia. The Ajuran Sultanate started to decline in power sometime at the 17th century. Sheik Yarrow Maaytey was sent by his father the Sultan of Jilibly in an effort to strategically attack in the interior of the Ajuran Sultanate. At the end of the 17th century, Sheik Yarrow Maaytey faced in a battle with an Ajuran general named Ibrahim Adeer. It was during a cease fire meeting when both leaders agreed that since various vassals were now breaking free or being absorbed by new Somali powers, they would revolt against the Ajuran Dynasty. The rebellion was led by the Silcis ruler Umar Abroone, with the city-state of Afgooye and the Geledi Sultanate subsequently formed. After the defeating of the Ajuran, the Galluweger Dynasty rule a land between the North East of Afgooye (the sultanate of Geledi )where up to now reminiscences of Galluweger tribe live, and the Southwestern regions of Bay, Bakool and Gedo.


    Origins
    The Galluweger people trace their origin back to one historical ancestor. The ancestor of Galluweger is Omardin who was one of six brothers Abdalla the great Abdalla The small Umarsiyaad, sadik and Ahmed., Omardin is the grand son of Fiqi Cumar (Sheekhaal). Omardin traveled from Harar to Gedo and Ganaane area on the upper Juba. He met there the Sultan of Digil Aleemo who had a sick daughter named Ashaa. Omardin was able to help the Sultan’s daughter Ashaa and heal her. It is said that Ashaa chose to marry him with the Sultan’s blessings. The Omardin’s lineages are traditionally considered as the chiefs of Digil and Rahanweyn. The Galluweger alone with the Gobroon (section of the Geledi tribe) were once dominant among the Digil and Rahanweyn, their influence extending to the coastal towns. They are still the most important sub-clans of the Rahanweyn Sagaal.


    Fiqi omar the ancestor of Galluweger is said to have lived in Harar (Addar). He was from Beni Amer tribe, which is well known in some parts of the Horn of Africa.


    "The Geledi ruled North East of Afgooye .... and the Southwestern regions of Bay, Bakool and Gedo." That's it.

    http://www.blackpast.org/gah/mogadishu-somalia-ca-950

    Note that the Muzzaffar were Yemenis and the Zanzibari Sultans were from Oman.

    "Founded by the Arabs in the 10th century, Mogadishu became the capital and chief port of Somalia. Initially after their arrival, families of Arab and Persian descent ruled Somalia and fueled the widespread conversion to Islam. By the thirteenth century, Mogadishu became prosperous by trading gold, livestock, slaves, leather, and ivory.

    In the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries the Muzzaffar Dynasty had dominated rule in Mogadishu and succeeded in defending the city against Portuguese invasion. However, by the next century, the Sultan of Oman conquered the city. In 1825 Mogadishu tried to overthrow Omani rule, and after refusal of aid from Britain, faced the challenge alone.

    By 1871 the Sultan of Zanzibar gained control of Mogadishu and leased the city’s port to the Italians in 1892. In 1905 the Italians bought the port city, making it the capital of Italian Somaliland."


     
  4. AbdiMajad

    AbdiMajad

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    @Grant, Again you're copying and pasting incorrect old revisions of Wikipedia saved by other blogs. You clearly don't know anything about Somali history. Listen, you can't believe Somali Arab daddy myths when Cushitic people predate Semitic people. Somalis are not recent but very ancient that have always lived and dominated the Somali peninsula. They are native to their lands.

    Now let me educate you about Somali migration. Did you know Somalis homeland where from the north where the Somali pastoral clans migrated to the south and established farmlands in Jubba and Shabelle valleys along with establishing flourishing habor ports within southern Somali coast?

    [​IMG]

    One of them was Mogadishu that was established in the second century and was the successor of of Sarapion and were settled by the Barbara people the ancestors of the modern day Somalis. Here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarapion

    [​IMG]

    Mogadishu has always been a Somali and it was found by the Somalis in the 2nd century.

    The origins of the name Mogadishu (Muqdisho) has many theories but it is most likely derived from a morphology of the Somali words "Muuq" and "Disho" which literally means "Sight Killer" or "Blinder" possibly referring to the city's blinding beauty.[5]


    Al-Yaqubi mentioned the first Somali word called "Somaal" and he mentioned them dominating most of the Horn. He also said they had a number of city states. However, they had two wealthy kingdoms which were Adal Kingdom (9th to 13th century) and Mogadishu Sultanate (9th to 13th century).

    Mogadishu Sultanate later succeeded by Ajuran Empire in the 13th century where Mogadishu became it's capital since the late 17th century and that's when Mogadishu truly experienced its golden age during the Ajuran period.

    Not to mention the fact that Somalis converted to Islam in the 7th century during Hijra at the time of Prophet Muhammed (PBUH) way before the people of Mecca. Forget Arab and Persian traders that depended on Somali goods. :drakekidding:

    Islam was introduced in Somalia in the 7th century when the Muslim Arabs fled from the persecution of the Pagan Quraysh tribe. When the Muslims defeated the Pagans, some returned to Arabia, but many decided to stay there and established Muslim communities along the Somali coastline. The local Somalis adopted the Islamic faith well before the faith even took root in its place of origin.[4]


    Islam was introduced to the northern Somali coast early on from the Arabian peninsula, shortly after the hijra. Zeila's two-mihrab Masjid al-Qiblatayn dates to the 7th century, and is the oldest mosque in Africa.[5][6]


    Here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_Somalia

    Note: Arabs, Persians, Indians and Spanish Muslims & Portuguese slaves existed came during the Ajuran period. They were not founders but traders and refugees that were allowed to settle in Mogadishu and that's the Benadiri ancestors.

    The late 15th and 17th centuries saw the arrival of Muslim families from Arabia, Persia, India and Spain to the Ajuran Sultanate, the majority of whom settled in the coastal provinces. Some migrated because of the instability in their respective regions,[47] as was the case with the Hadhrami families from the Yemen and the Muslims from Spain fleeing the Inquisition.[48] Others came to conduct business or for religious purposes. Due to their strong tradition in religious learning, the new Muslim communities also enjoyed high status among the Somali ruling elite and commoners.[47] It's believed the Benadiri people are the decedents of these people a tiny minority who inhabit the Benadir region.[49]

    As for Zanzibar Sultanate. Again they were nothing but nominal. They did not control a single Somali territory. Do you know what nominal means?

    It means: "(A claim with no control) existing in name only."

    Here is the real history of Mogadishu during the early modern period.

    In the late 1800s, the Omani Sultan of Zanzibar also briefly claimed to control Mogadishu in the Horn and southern Somalia. However, power on the ground remained in the hands of the powerful Somali kingdom called Geledi Sultanate (which, also holding sway over the Jubba River and Shebelle region in Somalia's interior, was at its zenith).[38] In 1892, Geledi ruler: Osman Ahmed leased the city to Italy. The Italians eventually purchased the executive rights in 1905, and made Mogadishu the capital of the newly established Italian Somaliland.[39]

    Here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mogadishu

    Somalis have never been ruled by foreigners. Southern Somalia was governed by local Somali kingdoms during the early modern period like Geledi Sultanate and Hiraab Imamate. The European scholars even confirm it in those times. Read below for facts.

    [​IMG]

    Again, I advise you to please read books and learn the real history of Somalis instead of reading blogs and stupid edit trolls of Wikipedia.
     
  5. Grant

    Grant

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    Abdi,

    I have DNA. I don't need Arab daddy myths.

    "T" comes from the north about 3 KYA, probably from a migration into the Red Sea Hills during the Neolithic at 6-8 KYA. E-V32 comes up the Nile from the Sudan, into the NFD and the southern Ethiopian highlands. The proto-Somalis then follow the Dawa, Genale and the coastal plain into Somalia at about the beginning of the Common Era. The Hawiyye later follow the Shabelli out of the Ogaden, arriving at the Indian ocean coast at Merka by about 1100 AD. The Northern clans form in the 12-13th centuries and the Darood (only) begin a western and southern expansion. The Oromo come initially up the Blue Nile, following other Cushitic groups into the Ethiopian highlands.

    The likely sequence of settlement was:

    Hunter-Gatherers similar to the Eyle

    Negroid farmers similar to the Makane, Shabelli, Shidle and Gabaweyn, apparently related to the Ari of Ethiopia.

    "T"

    The Yibir

    E-V32

    The Bajuni trace back to the 13th century in Kismayu.

    The "Somali Bantus" arrive after 1825.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    You are making up what you want to believe. It is not history.

    Check this out:

    What happened to the Cushites?

    https://www.quora.com/What-happened-to-the-Cushites
     
  6. AbdiMajad

    AbdiMajad

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    Here we go again with your anti-Somali sentiments that I previously debunk. Everything I say is a historical fact and is fully documented with athuentic sources. All you showed was blogs written by ignorant hating Somali trolls and I also refuted that and you're still showing me fantacy myths and I will also debunk that garbage too.

    The DNA "T" highest sequence is found in the Horn meaning that it originated from the Horn just like "E1B1B". So again, the Arab myth you still believe in is debunked since "T" actually came from the Horn meaning any other people has "T" intermarried with the Somali seafaring traders.


    [​IMG]

    E1b1b also originated from the Horn. Let's not also forget that the oldest Afroasiatic is Cushitic.

    [​IMG]

    Here is Cushitic being the proto Afroasiatic and others came late.

    [​IMG]

    Modern scientist and scholars have confirmed together that the Somali origins and homeland are from the north. I've shown you sources of them migrating to southern Somalia in the 1st century. So stop making sh*t up and admit that you're wrong. Your revisionist doesn't work against me and thank God that Somali Museums and Somali history universities perserved their history and would debunk your lies like me.

    [​IMG]

    Jubba and Shabelle valleys were inhabited by other Cushitic people, not Negroids and were pushed out by Somalis in the first century. There were no Negroids present in southern Somalia and Shidle and the rest you mentioned are Bantu slaves that were collected by Somali slave traders from Southeast Africa and when they lived in Somalia they began copying the Somali clan system. Here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_Somalia

    Eyle are pure Somalis and a sub-clan of Mirifle, Rahanweyn lmfao. As for Yibir, they are genetically related to the rest of Somalis. The Yibir clan belonged to the EV32 sub-clade of the Y-DNA E1b1b paternal haplogroup. You believe in so many myths that is pathetic for me to debate you.

    Lmfao! Kismayo was never settled by Swahilis. It was a Somali settlement and served as an agricultural port that sold its crops during the Ajuran period. Learn the history of Kismayo, here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kismayo

    Again, you don't know anything about Somali history so I advice you to please do some research and stop your anti-Somali revisionist because it's absolutely disgusting and discourteous.
     
    Last edited: Apr 16, 2018
  7. Grant

    Grant

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    Abdi,

    Einstein, Hitler, Lyndon Baines Johnson and I are all E1b1b. Our ancestors went north and west from the Levant when yours went south. My mt DNA is downstream from 7-9000 YO Cheddar Man, found in the west of England, who was U5a and a hunter/gatherer. The male line shares an ancestor with Napoleon Bonaparte but was originally part of the initial group of farmers (linked by DNA to the Natufians) .that settled Europe at the end of the last Ice Age.

    https://www.somalispot.com/threads/how-many-here-have-had-their-dna-tested.39781/

    "Shanshiyo1234 said:
    How many of you have had your DNA tested please post here!"


    I did the medical version of 23 and me and my results are in a somewhat different format. I always thought I was Anglo/German. Turns out I am a third each Anglo/Irish, French Swiss and Scandinavian.

    I am U5a2a mtDNA and E-L29 yDNA. E-L29 = E1b1b1c1a.

    As I have said in other posts, my futo is the color of caano liis. I have a full abtirsi, both x and y lines, going back to the middle 16th century, which does not disagree with the findings, even though the nationalities are off. An especially interesting thing to me about the findings are the genetic relatives they keep coming up with. Many are names also in my abtirsi.

    The medical findings also seem accurate, with a couple of small anomalies."

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    This is from my 23 and me:


    "Origin and Migrations of Haplogroup E-M123
    Your paternal line traces back to the common ancestor of haplogroup E-M123, a man who may have lived in eastern Africa over 20,000 years ago. At some time during the next 10,000 years, some of his descendants migrated north to the Levant and the Middle East, where the lineage is quite common today. In fact, evidence once suggested that the southern Levant may have been the birthplace of the haplogroup. It was there, soon after the Ice Age drew to a close 11,500 years ago, that humans first learned to domesticate cereals and livestock, and completely transformed their way of life. In fact, farming and herding were such successful strategies that populations boomed, sparking waves of migration into Europe and Africa about 8,000 years ago. Some of those men likely bore the E-M123 haplogroup, and as they migrated they introduced not only their technology and culture, but also the paternal lineage.

    Today, some of the highest concentrations of men bearing haplogroup E-M123 and its diverse branches are found in eastern Africa, where they make up between 5 and 10% of men in parts of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia. Farther east, nearly 10% of men tested in Oman and 8% in Yemen carry the haplogroup. And to the north, they are found at low frequencies among Egyptians, Algerians, Tunisians, and others.

    The other great peak of men bearing E-M123 is in the southern Levant. They are spread throughout the Middle East and in present-day Turkey at frequencies of about 5%, and make up about 13% of the male population in Jordan. Though generally rare in Europe, E-M123 can be found among men along the Mediterranean Sea, and is at its most common in Sicily (7%) and Sardinia (4%). Even at the far western edge, the lineage found in the Iberian Peninsula, especially among men from Portugal and the Spanish region of Galicia."

    E-L-29 is downstream from E-M123 at about 4000 BP, which is also the approximate date for the last mutation on my female line.


    ----------------------------------------

    Please notice on your map that neither Afroasiatic homeland is anywhere near Somalia. One is the home of E-V32 in the Cushitic homeland in the Sudan, and the other is up the Nile tributaries, pushing Ethiopia. They are exactly where they should be.

    ----------------------------------------------------

    Our views of this and similar material are so dissimilar I don't feel additional discussion will be profitable.
     
  8. Saeedlfc

    Saeedlfc

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    Sultan Olol Dinle, great Hawiye leader. May Allah bless him :salute:
     
  9. AbdiMajad

    AbdiMajad

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    Sxb. Ajuran isn't Hawiye. They used to be the biggest Somali clan in the medieval times. They used to be bigger than us and Rahanweyn combined and we were under their governance since the early 13th century but we revoluted their imperial rule along with Rahanweyn and Bimaal during the late 17th century and we established our own indepedent kingdoms known as Hiraab Imamate for Hawiye, Geledi Sultanate for Rahanweyn and Bimaal Sultanate centred in Merca.

    Ajuran got really small due to southern Somali tribes assimilating them and killing them which greatly decreased their numbers and they eventually escaped to Kenya for safety and some resisted and stayed at Qelafo

    Ajuran are Harmalle who is brothers of IRIR. They are actually an older clan than Hawiye but the reason why they are considered Hawiye is due to their langaab numbers and so they are politically Hawiye but not in lineage wise. Here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajuran_(clan)
     
  10. World

    World

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    Kulaha Ajuuran were the largest somali clan in middle times. They were getting assimilated by oromos in the 18-19th century before the darood expansion.
     
  11. AbdiMajad

    AbdiMajad

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    Are you mentally retarded? In the medieval times Ajuran were the biggest Somali clan and that's a fact and after Ajuran were Dir.

    Plus, Ajuran were never assimilated by Oromos. They were assimilated by other Somalis actually and I've already explained now go read my comment at the top again. You're clearly don't know a thing about Somali history you fool.

    Now in the modern times the biggest Somali clans are Darood, Hawiye and Isaaq but in the medieval times were actually Ajuran and Dir and no Somali denies that and if you do then clearly you're not bright.
     
  12. World

    World

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    Dir is a clan, Ajuuran is a sub clan. How are they comparable? I believe Dir may have been a much larger clan they are today, since they live scattered across the Somali peninsula. But there is no proof that Ajuuran were a large sub clan, and yes they were being assimilated by the Oromos before the arrival of the Northern Darood. When the British devised the famous Somali/Galla line, they were part of the Galla. They had to go through a process of Somalization.
     
  13. AbdiMajad

    AbdiMajad

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    Holy crap. I was right you really are a dumb f#ck. Listen I've studied Somali history deeply and you clearly don't know what you're talking about.

    Ajuran isn't a sub clan you fool. I'm hawiye and I'm telling you this that they aren't Hawiye but actually belong to Harmalle who are brothers of IRIR. Ajuran is actually older than Hawiye and in the medieval times they were the biggest Somali clan since 9th century till the late 17th century and that is a fundamental fact. Why am I even arguing about it? You are so ignorant about Somali history.

    Also, they were never assimilated by Oromo. They actually supported the Somali expansion with Darood, Degoodi and Garre in NFD. Have you not learn the the collapse of Ajuran Empire? Hawiye, Rahanweyn, Bimaal and some other minority Somali clans in the south assimilated the Ajuran clan and they escaped to Kenya where they were successful in crushing Gallas and they also established a mini state in Qelafo where Sultan Olol Dinle was their last king.

    Also, learn some dates you fool. 18th and 19th centuries aren't considered medieval but actually early modern. :drakewtf:
     
  14. World

    World

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    upload_2018-4-17_15-4-35.png

    Ajuran were only classed as "Somali-like" in 1934, and this fool thinks they were the greatest Somali clan. :heh:

    He thinks they were part of the great Darood expansion, when they were allies of the Borana Oromos. :heh:
     
  15. AbdiMajad

    AbdiMajad

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    I give up. I only said they were the biggest Somali clan in the medieval times. I never said they were the greatest. Darood, Hawiye and Isaaq were never that big in the medieval times. The two top dogs were Ajuran and Dir and that is a fact and if you don't like it than go cry somewhere else since your mom dropped you when you a little baby.

    But at the same time Ajuran produced the best Somali civilization and you can't deny that.

    You're only talking about the Ajuran that live in Kenya with the Borana clan. They may have adopted their language but they still kept their Somali identity.
     
  16. Grant

    Grant

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    I forgot to cover this.

    https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_T_Y-DNA.shtml


    "Origins & History
    Haplogroup T emerged from haplogroup K, the ancestor of most of the Eurasian haplogroups (L, N, O, P, Q, R and T), some time between 45,000 and 35,000 years ago. The vast majority of modern members of haplogroup T belong to the T1a branch, which developed during the late glacial period, between 25,000 and 15,000 years ago, possibily in the vicinity of the Iranian Plateau.

    Although haplogroup T is more common today in East Africa than anywhere else, it almost certainly spread from the Fertile Crescent with the rise of agriculture. Indeed, the oldest subclades and the greatest diversity of T is found in the Middle East, especially around the Fertile Crescent. Lazaridis et al. (2016) identified one carrier of haplogroup T among the remains of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B site in Jordan. A T1a sample was also found in the Early Neolithic Linear Pottery (LBK) culture in Germany by Mathieson et al. (2015). By the end of the last glacial period, 12,000 years ago, haplogroup T had already differentiated into subclades such as T1a1a, T1a2, T1a3a and T1a3b. Deeper subclades developed in the Near East during the Early Neolithic period for several millennia before early farmers started expanding beyond the Near East.

    Neolithic colonisation of the Arabian peninsula and East Africa
    The higher frequency of T in East Africa would be due to a founder effect among Neolithic farmers or pastoralists from the Middle East. One theory is that haplogroup T spread alongside J1 as herder-hunters in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period, leaving the Zagros mountains between 9,000 and 10,000 BCE, reaching the Egypt and the southern Arabian peninsula around 7,000 BCE, then propagating from there to the Horn of Africa, and later on to Madagascar. However, considering that J1 peaks in Yemen and Sudan, while T1 is most common in southern Egypt, Eritrea and Somalia, the two may not necessarily have spread together. They might instead have spread as separate nomadic tribes of herders who colonised the Red Sea region during the Neolithic, a period than spanned over several millennia. Nevertheless both are found in all the Arabian peninsula, all the way from Egypt to Somalia, and in Madagascar. This contrasts with other Near Eastern haplogroups like G2a and J2, which are conspicuously absent from East Africa, and rare in the Arabian peninsula. Nowadays, T1a subclades dating from the Neolithic found in East Africa include Y16247 (downstream of CTS2214) and Y16897. Other subclades dating from the Bronze Age (see below) are present as well, such as Y15711 and Y21004, both downstream of CTS2214."
     
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