Land of Punt: the mysterious land

Where is the land of of pnt? This mysterious place has been researched but little evidence appears. I believe the land of pnt to stretch from north east Sudan to Eritrea and then south to northern Ethiopia. Here is my evidence:

How did the Egyptians reach pnt?

1. "To confuse matters further, other references indicate that the Egyptians didn't always go by way of the Red Sea. Certain inscriptions imply that another option to reach Punt was to travel south along the Nile, through Nubia just to the south of Egypt, and beyond. Some scholars believe the Egyptians opted for this route when friendly peoples ruled Nubia (as during the Old Kingdom), and only chose the Red Sea option—and the much more involved desert crossing—when hostile kingdoms blocked the overland route to the south (as during the Middle and early New Kingdoms)."

The Egyptians used both the Red sea route and the Nile in order to reach Pnt. As pnt lyes just under the Red Sea. They used the Nile and then went on to use the tributary of the Nile (Atbara) in order to reach the realm of pnt.



2. "Yet Hatshepsut's relief appears to contradict that stance, as Kenneth Kitchen pointed out in a 1971 review of Herzog's work. Most indisputably, Kitchen notes, the fish that Hatshepsut's carvers depicted beneath the Punt ships, along with other marine creatures such as spiny lobster and squid, are clearly recognizable as species that swim to this day in the Red Sea."

Another point that show that the Red Sea was the docking and port of Pnt.

3. In 2010, a genetic study was conducted on the mummified remains of baboons that were brought back from Punt by the ancient Egyptians. Led by a research team from the Egyptian Museum and the University of California, Santa Cruz, the scientists used oxygen isotope analysis to examine hairs from two baboon mummies that had been preserved in the British Museum. One of the baboons had distorted isotopic data, so the other's oxygen isotope values were compared to those of modern-day baboon specimens from regions of interest. The researchers at first found that the mummies most closely matched modern specimens seen in Eritrea and Ethiopia as opposed to those in neighboring Somalia, with the Ethiopian specimens "basically due west from Eritrea". The team did not have the opportunity to compare the mummies with baboons in Yemen. The scientists believed that such an analysis would yield similar results since, according to them, regional isotopic maps suggest that baboons in Yemen would closely resemble those in Somalia. Professor Dominy, one of the lead researchers, concluded from this that "we think Punt is a sort of circumscribed region that includes eastern Ethiopia and all of Eritrea."[30] In 2015, the scientists conducted a follow-up study to confirm their initial findings.

Specimen of the pnt mummy matches that of the current animals of Ethiopia and Eritrea.



In conclusion, pnts most likely location is on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea and just south of the coast in present day Ethiopia. @Grant
 
Where is the land of of pnt? This mysterious place has been researched but little evidence appears. I believe the land of pnt to stretch from north east Sudan to Eritrea and then south to northern Ethiopia. Here is my evidence:

How did the Egyptians reach pnt?

1. "To confuse matters further, other references indicate that the Egyptians didn't always go by way of the Red Sea. Certain inscriptions imply that another option to reach Punt was to travel south along the Nile, through Nubia just to the south of Egypt, and beyond. Some scholars believe the Egyptians opted for this route when friendly peoples ruled Nubia (as during the Old Kingdom), and only chose the Red Sea option—and the much more involved desert crossing—when hostile kingdoms blocked the overland route to the south (as during the Middle and early New Kingdoms)."

The Egyptians used both the Red sea route and the Nile in order to reach Pnt. As pnt lyes just under the Red Sea. They used the Nile and then went on to use the tributary of the Nile (Atbara) in order to reach the realm of pnt.



2. "Yet Hatshepsut's relief appears to contradict that stance, as Kenneth Kitchen pointed out in a 1971 review of Herzog's work. Most indisputably, Kitchen notes, the fish that Hatshepsut's carvers depicted beneath the Punt ships, along with other marine creatures such as spiny lobster and squid, are clearly recognizable as species that swim to this day in the Red Sea."

Another point that show that the Red Sea was the docking and port of Pnt.

3. In 2010, a genetic study was conducted on the mummified remains of baboons that were brought back from Punt by the ancient Egyptians. Led by a research team from the Egyptian Museum and the University of California, Santa Cruz, the scientists used oxygen isotope analysis to examine hairs from two baboon mummies that had been preserved in the British Museum. One of the baboons had distorted isotopic data, so the other's oxygen isotope values were compared to those of modern-day baboon specimens from regions of interest. The researchers at first found that the mummies most closely matched modern specimens seen in Eritrea and Ethiopia as opposed to those in neighboring Somalia, with the Ethiopian specimens "basically due west from Eritrea". The team did not have the opportunity to compare the mummies with baboons in Yemen. The scientists believed that such an analysis would yield similar results since, according to them, regional isotopic maps suggest that baboons in Yemen would closely resemble those in Somalia. Professor Dominy, one of the lead researchers, concluded from this that "we think Punt is a sort of circumscribed region that includes eastern Ethiopia and all of Eritrea."[30] In 2015, the scientists conducted a follow-up study to confirm their initial findings.

Specimen of the pnt mummy matches that of the current animals of Ethiopia and Eritrea.



In conclusion, pnts most likely location is on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea and just south of the coast in present day Ethiopia. @Grant

Menelik,

I was also fooled by this 2010 study. There was another one in 2015 that puts eastern Somalia back into the mix.

https://landofpunt.wordpress.com/2016/02/17/punt-an-ancient-civilization-rediscovered/

"In 2015, the same Egyptian and American researchers conducted a more comprehensive isotopic study to confirm their preliminary findings. This time they compared both hair and bone samples, which they had extracted from two New Kingdom baboon mummies, with those of living baboons from the primary hypothesized locations of the Land of Punt. Analyzing both oxygen and strontium values, the scientists found that the closest matches were with specimens endemic to eastern Somalia and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor. They thus concluded that this area was the likeliest source of the baboons that were exported from Punt to Ancient Egypt:"
 

DeathWish

Hotep and Hebrew Israelite
Where is the land of of pnt? This mysterious place has been researched but little evidence appears. I believe the land of pnt to stretch from north east Sudan to Eritrea and then south to northern Ethiopia. Here is my evidence:

How did the Egyptians reach pnt?

1. "To confuse matters further, other references indicate that the Egyptians didn't always go by way of the Red Sea. Certain inscriptions imply that another option to reach Punt was to travel south along the Nile, through Nubia just to the south of Egypt, and beyond. Some scholars believe the Egyptians opted for this route when friendly peoples ruled Nubia (as during the Old Kingdom), and only chose the Red Sea option—and the much more involved desert crossing—when hostile kingdoms blocked the overland route to the south (as during the Middle and early New Kingdoms)."

The Egyptians used both the Red sea route and the Nile in order to reach Pnt. As pnt lyes just under the Red Sea. They used the Nile and then went on to use the tributary of the Nile (Atbara) in order to reach the realm of pnt.



2. "Yet Hatshepsut's relief appears to contradict that stance, as Kenneth Kitchen pointed out in a 1971 review of Herzog's work. Most indisputably, Kitchen notes, the fish that Hatshepsut's carvers depicted beneath the Punt ships, along with other marine creatures such as spiny lobster and squid, are clearly recognizable as species that swim to this day in the Red Sea."

Another point that show that the Red Sea was the docking and port of Pnt.

3. In 2010, a genetic study was conducted on the mummified remains of baboons that were brought back from Punt by the ancient Egyptians. Led by a research team from the Egyptian Museum and the University of California, Santa Cruz, the scientists used oxygen isotope analysis to examine hairs from two baboon mummies that had been preserved in the British Museum. One of the baboons had distorted isotopic data, so the other's oxygen isotope values were compared to those of modern-day baboon specimens from regions of interest. The researchers at first found that the mummies most closely matched modern specimens seen in Eritrea and Ethiopia as opposed to those in neighboring Somalia, with the Ethiopian specimens "basically due west from Eritrea". The team did not have the opportunity to compare the mummies with baboons in Yemen. The scientists believed that such an analysis would yield similar results since, according to them, regional isotopic maps suggest that baboons in Yemen would closely resemble those in Somalia. Professor Dominy, one of the lead researchers, concluded from this that "we think Punt is a sort of circumscribed region that includes eastern Ethiopia and all of Eritrea."[30] In 2015, the scientists conducted a follow-up study to confirm their initial findings.

Specimen of the pnt mummy matches that of the current animals of Ethiopia and Eritrea.



In conclusion, pnts most likely location is on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea and just south of the coast in present day Ethiopia. @Grant
Somalia is definitely where Hatshepsut (female Pharaoh) came to take the high-quality Myrrh (frankincense).

"Frankincense has been traded on the Arabian Peninsula, in North Africa, and Somalia for more than 5000 years. A mural depicting sacks of frankincense traded from the Land of Punt adorns the walls of the temple of ancient Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut, who died circa 1458 BC."

"Somalia is the only place in the world where the rare and valuable Frankincense Frereana, know as Maydi, can be found in abundance."

"Somalia produces 90% of the world's frankincense."


"Maydi is considered to be superior to other frankincense varieties by the Somalis, Arabians, and Greeks. Historically over 70% of its annual yield is imported by Saudi Arabia where it is highly regarded as a prestigious chewing gum.
This frankincense species is found only on the steep vertical slopes of coastal Northern Somalia. "


https://fairtradefrankincense.com/tag/somalia/
http://www.scents-of-earth.com/frankincense6.html


“Pottery found in Opeonean (Hafun) tombs date back to the Mycenaean Kingdoms of Greece that flourished between the 16th and 11th century BC.”
https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Maritime history of Somalia

This means that the primitive Greeks (Mycenaean) came to Somalia for trade in a time when Punt was thriving.

Some more proof...

“Bulhar is situated near Zeila. The site is believed to correspond with the ancient commercial Port of Isis described by the Roman scholar Pliny the Elder. Pliny also associated the area with the toponym Abalito, which Said M-Shidad Hussein writes is likely the Avalite of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.According to Pliny, the Port of Isis was a center for myrrh commerce. He likewise noted that the Egyptian Pharaoh Sesostris led his forces passed the region en route to the northeastern port of Mosylon (Bosaso), a cinnamon hub that is believed to have been in or close to present-day Bosaso. Additionally, Pliny indicated that the Port of Isis was located near stone pillars on which unknown letters were engraved. Samuel Sharpe suggests that these old inscriptions were probably hieroglyphical.”


http://cdn.wardheernews.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Kingdom-of-Punt-IV_Said.pdf

Pharaoh Sesostris came to Somalia in the 19th century BC. Why would he come to Somalia for trade if there was no civilization there?

The Baboon study from 2015...

"Analyzing both oxygen and strontium values, the scientists found that the closest matches were with specimens endemic to eastern Somalia (where the Mycenaean pottery was found) and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor."

http://meeting.physanth.org/program...ons-clarify-ancient-red-sea-trade-routes.html
 
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Somalia is definitely where Hatshepsut (female Pharaoh) came to take the high-quality Myrrh (frankincense).

"Frankincense has been traded on the Arabian Peninsula, in North Africa, and Somalia for more than 5000 years. A mural depicting sacks of frankincense traded from the Land of Punt adorns the walls of the temple of ancient Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut, who died circa 1458 BC."

"Somalia is the only place in the world where the rare and valuable Frankincense Frereana, know as Maydi, can be found in abundance."

"Somalia produces 90% of the world's frankincense."


"Maydi is considered to be superior to other frankincense varieties by the Somalis, Arabians, and Greeks. Historically over 70% of its annual yield is imported by Saudi Arabia where it is highly regarded as a prestigious chewing gum.
This frankincense species is found only on the steep vertical slopes of coastal Northern Somalia. "


https://fairtradefrankincense.com/tag/somalia/
http://www.scents-of-earth.com/frankincense6.html


“Pottery found in Opeonean (Hafun) tombs date back to the Mycenaean Kingdoms of Greece that flourished between the 16th and 11th century BC.”
https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Maritime history of Somalia

This means that the primitive Greeks (Mycenaean) came to Somalia for trade in a time when Punt was thriving.

Some more proof...

“Bulhar is situated near Zeila. The site is believed to correspond with the ancient commercial Port of Isis described by the Roman scholar Pliny the Elder. Pliny also associated the area with the toponym Abalito, which Said M-Shidad Hussein writes is likely the Avalite of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.According to Pliny, the Port of Isis was a center for myrrh commerce. He likewise noted that the Egyptian Pharaoh Sesostris led his forces passed the region en route to the northeastern port of Mosylon (Bosaso), a cinnamon hub that is believed to have been in or close to present-day Bosaso. Additionally, Pliny indicated that the Port of Isis was located near stone pillars on which unknown letters were engraved. Samuel Sharpe suggests that these old inscriptions were probably hieroglyphical.”


http://cdn.wardheernews.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Kingdom-of-Punt-IV_Said.pdf

Pharaoh Sesostris came to Somalia in the 19th century BC. Why would he come to Somalia for trade if there was no civilization there?

The Baboon study from 2015...

"Analyzing both oxygen and strontium values, the scientists found that the closest matches were with specimens endemic to eastern Somalia (where the Mycenaean pottery was found) and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor."

http://meeting.physanth.org/program...ons-clarify-ancient-red-sea-trade-routes.html
I want facts not hearsay from Somali blogs. I gave you facts that are too obvious unless you're blind. How does a civilization just vanish and the locals just revert back to..?

In Ethiopia and Eritrea there has been a civilization in one form or another since 5000bce such as the dmt empire, the gash cluster, the ona culture, Aksum, and the Ethiopian empire. It's almost laughable to think it's anywhere else.
 
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Ras

It's all so tiresome
VIP
I want facts not hearsay from Somali blogs. I gave you facts that are too obvious unless you're blind. How does a civilization just vanish and the locals just revert back to..?

In Ethiopia and Eritrea there has been a civilization in one form or another since 5000bce such as the dmt empire, the gash cluster and the ona culture. It's almost laughable to think it's anywhere else.
The geography doesn't lend itself for farming and long term settlements.

Nomadic tribes with different allegiances and beliefs roamed the region and they probably fought each other and burned down anything relating to each other.

We probably had a dozen cultures going on at the same time as the land of punt within the hinterlands.

Once Archeologists can safely go around Somalia; they'll probably start finding more evidence of past civilisations at that time.
 
The geography doesn't lend itself for farming and long term settlements.

Nomadic tribes with different allegiances and beliefs roamed the region and they probably fought each other and burned down anything relating to each other.

We probably had a dozen cultures going on at the same time as the land of punt within the hinterlands.

Once Archeologists can safely go around Somalia; they'll probably start finding more evidence of past civilisations at that time.
That's could possibly be true, but to claim something that might not even have existed is just ridiculous.
 
Bring on facts to say otherwise @Amun @Prince Abubu
1) I don't know, nor do I care where Punt was. It was an irrelevant place that is only famous due to it's connection to Ancient Egypt. If it was a place of importance it would've left physical remains to show where it was.

2) You're a xabashi. Even if Punt was in modern day Ethiopia/Eritrea, you would still have nothing to do with it because your ancestors were molesting goats in Yemen back then.
 
Somalia is definitely where Hatshepsut (female Pharaoh) came to take the high-quality Myrrh (frankincense).

"Frankincense has been traded on the Arabian Peninsula, in North Africa, and Somalia for more than 5000 years. A mural depicting sacks of frankincense traded from the Land of Punt adorns the walls of the temple of ancient Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut, who died circa 1458 BC."

"Somalia is the only place in the world where the rare and valuable Frankincense Frereana, know as Maydi, can be found in abundance."

"Somalia produces 90% of the world's frankincense."


"Maydi is considered to be superior to other frankincense varieties by the Somalis, Arabians, and Greeks. Historically over 70% of its annual yield is imported by Saudi Arabia where it is highly regarded as a prestigious chewing gum.
This frankincense species is found only on the steep vertical slopes of coastal Northern Somalia. "


https://fairtradefrankincense.com/tag/somalia/
http://www.scents-of-earth.com/frankincense6.html


“Pottery found in Opeonean (Hafun) tombs date back to the Mycenaean Kingdoms of Greece that flourished between the 16th and 11th century BC.”
https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Maritime history of Somalia

This means that the primitive Greeks (Mycenaean) came to Somalia for trade in a time when Punt was thriving.

Some more proof...

“Bulhar is situated near Zeila. The site is believed to correspond with the ancient commercial Port of Isis described by the Roman scholar Pliny the Elder. Pliny also associated the area with the toponym Abalito, which Said M-Shidad Hussein writes is likely the Avalite of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.According to Pliny, the Port of Isis was a center for myrrh commerce. He likewise noted that the Egyptian Pharaoh Sesostris led his forces passed the region en route to the northeastern port of Mosylon (Bosaso), a cinnamon hub that is believed to have been in or close to present-day Bosaso. Additionally, Pliny indicated that the Port of Isis was located near stone pillars on which unknown letters were engraved. Samuel Sharpe suggests that these old inscriptions were probably hieroglyphical.”


http://cdn.wardheernews.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Kingdom-of-Punt-IV_Said.pdf

Pharaoh Sesostris came to Somalia in the 19th century BC. Why would he come to Somalia for trade if there was no civilization there?

The Baboon study from 2015...

"Analyzing both oxygen and strontium values, the scientists found that the closest matches were with specimens endemic to eastern Somalia (where the Mycenaean pottery was found) and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor."

http://meeting.physanth.org/program...ons-clarify-ancient-red-sea-trade-routes.html

The most likely identification of Punt is with the Gash culture of the Sudan.

https://r.search.yahoo.com/_ylt=Awr...0119.pdf/RK=1/RS=kPNo1rB6cnSOlVob5.8cS.bSaJU-


"On the whole, it seems that the radius of action of the Gash Group covered a very wide area stretching from the White Nile to the Red Sea coast and the cliffs of the Ethiopian plateau (Fattovich, Sadr and Vitagliano 1988). Therefore, the present evidence suggests that in the late 3rd - early 2nd millennium B.C. Mahal Teglinos was a node in the commercial routes connecting the Middle Nile and the Gezira to the Red Sea coast and the Ethiopian highlands. To this commercial activity we can relate most likely the occurrence of donkey remains in the levels I - II at Mahal Teglinos.
Social complexity"

"Another important environmental factor was the availability of natural resources particularly appreciated in ancient times, in the hinterland of Kassala: frankincense, other resins and gums, gold, ivory and ebony (Fattovich, Sadr and Vitagliano 1988)."

There is a lot of archaeological work now being done in this area that should clarify the details. Gash and Kerma appear to have been linked by trade, as well as Gash, Egypt and the Red Sea coast. The dates and resources are correct.
 

DeathWish

Hotep and Hebrew Israelite
The most likely identification of Punt is with the Gash culture of the Sudan.

https://r.search.yahoo.com/_ylt=AwrTceHypIVZmBoAxo8nnIlQ;_ylu=X3oDMTBya2cwZmh2BGNvbG8DZ3ExBHBvcwM1BHZ0aWQDBHNlYwNzcg--/RV=2/RE=1501959538/RO=10/RU=https://books.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/propylaeum/reader/download/202/202-30-76699-1-10-20170119.pdf/RK=1/RS=kPNo1rB6cnSOlVob5.8cS.bSaJU-


"On the whole, it seems that the radius of action of the Gash Group covered a very wide area stretching from the White Nile to the Red Sea coast and the cliffs of the Ethiopian plateau (Fattovich, Sadr and Vitagliano 1988). Therefore, the present evidence suggests that in the late 3rd - early 2nd millennium B.C. Mahal Teglinos was a node in the commercial routes connecting the Middle Nile and the Gezira to the Red Sea coast and the Ethiopian highlands. To this commercial activity we can relate most likely the occurrence of donkey remains in the levels I - II at Mahal Teglinos.
Social complexity"

"Another important environmental factor was the availability of natural resources particularly appreciated in ancient times, in the hinterland of Kassala: frankincense, other resins and gums, gold, ivory and ebony (Fattovich, Sadr and Vitagliano 1988)."

There is a lot of archaeological work now being done in this area that should clarify the details. Gash and Kerma appear to have been linked by trade, as well as Gash, Egypt and the Red Sea coast. The dates and resources are correct.
Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Sudan have the same frankincense tree. Why would Egyptians go to Punt for myrrh if they have the same plant in their own country? Obviously, Punt had a higher quality frankincense that the Egyptians loved. Somalia has 3 different types of frankincense trees. The best frankincense in Africa is found only in Somalia. Even the Greeks said that the frankincense in Somalia had a much better quality than other frankincenses. The Roman Catholic Churches buy their high-quality frankincense from Somalia, not from Eritrea or Ethiopia.

The pottery found by the British archaeologists in the Oponean tombs (Xaafun) was from 1500 BC. This proves that Somalia was actively trading in the time that Punt was still a civilization (Punt became mythological in the late dynasties). In the last page, I showed a link of a Roman scholar saying that an 11th Dynasty Pharaoh came to Mosylon (Bosaso). The baboons from Punt are from Eastern Somalia and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor which is not where the Gash people lived.
 
Everyone knows the best frankincense is grown in Eastern Somaliland. Since when have Sudan and Eritrea been famous for incense?
Prior to US sanctions 80% of the world's Acacia gum came from Sudan, now it's around 50%.

We use frankincense in "Bakhoor", everyone in Sudan lights it before guests come.

 
Prior to US sanctions 80% of the world's Acacia gum came from Sudan, now it's around 50%.

We use frankincense in "Bakhoor", everyone in Sudan lights it before guests come.


It is about quality and good name. Somali frankincense is the best in the world and uptill now it does not go to regular markets. It is sold directly to Vatican and used by Catholic Church in Europe. second customer is perfume markers in France.
 

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