History of Somali coins and banknotes

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"In order to facilitate regional trade, the Mogadishu Sultanate began minting its own coins, a move which had the effect of centralizing its commercial hegemony. The currency bears the names of 23 successive Sultans of Mogadishu. Some coins also adopted the style of the extant Fatimid and Ottoman currencies. Alongside their own Ajuran currency, the Sultans of the Ajuran Sultanate, a kingdom of which the Mogadishu Sultanate later became a vassal, also used Mogadishu coins.

Mogadishan coins were in widespread circulation. Pieces have been found as far away as the present-day United Arab Emirates, where a coin bearing the name of a 15th-century Somali Sultan Ali b. Yusuf of Mogadishu was excavated. Over the course of three archaeological expeditions in Warsheikh between 1920 and 1921, Enrico Cerulli also uncovered coins from the medieval Sultans of Mogadishu. They were deposited in the Scuola Orientale of the University of Rome, but were later lost in World War II. According to Cerulli, similar coins were found in the village of Mos (Moos), located about 14 km to Warsheikh's northwest. Freeman-Grenville (1963) also record another discovery of ancient coins in the latter town. During excavation in Iraq in 1971, a copper piece was discovered baring the name of Sultan of Mogadishu Ali ibn Yusuf.Bronze coins belonging to the Sultans of Mogadishu have also been found at Belid near Salalah in Dhofar."


- Sultan Umar
Sultan Umar

Sultan Zubayr b.‘Umar
- Sultan Zubayr B.'Umar



Sultan Yusuf B.Sa'id
SULTAN Yusuf b. SA'ID


- Sultan Muhammad - 14th century
- Sultan Muhammad 14th century


Sultan Al- Rahman b. Al Musa'id
Sultan Al-Rahman B. Al Musa'id

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- Sultan Ali B. Yusuf
- Sultan Ali B Yusuf
- Sultan Ali B Yusuf
Sultan Ali b Yusuf












Sultan Yusuf b Abi Bakr
- Sultan Yusuf B Abi Bakr

- Sultan Muhammad al Adil al Zaffir

- Sultan Muhammad al Mujahid


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Some of the coins with their inscriptions (detailing the ruler) I have found, others are anonymous for example this coin.

- Unknown ruler


Coins that I cannot find;
Sultan `Abd al-`Aziz,
Sultan Al Dibir,
Sultan Abu Bakr b. Fakhr ad Din,
Sultan Abu Bakr b. Muhammad,
Sultan Al Bahuq,
Sultan Rasul B. Ali
Sultan Malik B Sa'id.
Sultan al-Taufiq ibn Sa'ad
Sultan al-Malik Faq
Sultan Sulaiman
Sultan Ahmad ibn 'Ali
Sultan Baha-allah al-Sabr




EAST AFRICAN COIN FINDS AND THEIR HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE

By G. S. P. FBEEMAN-GRENVILLE 1960

"In his account of his visit to Mogadishu Ibn Battuta emphasizes the
northern trade connexion of the town with Syria and especially with
Egypt. Even the surname of the Qadi is al-Misri, the Egyptian. The
Mogadishu coins now available include one dated billon, or base silver,
specimen which is a variant of Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad, which the writer
was at first inclined to ascribe to one or other of the two rulers of that name
of Pate in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries: this is clearly wrong, for
the coin bears the date A.H. 722 =A.D. 1322.

Like the Kilwa series it has a
rhyme, but on this occasion on the obverse only:
yathiku/bi'l-ahad al-samad/Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad.
. . . trusts/in the one Eternal (God)/Abu Bakr son of Muhammad.

Eleven other of the Mogadishu rulers used rhymes in the Kilwa manner,
while the similarity of appearance of their issues to those of Muhammad
ibn Sulaiman of Kilwa (1412-22) suggests a later dating than the issues of
Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad. Unlike him, but like the Kilwa issues, they
bear no date. Thus it would appear probable that the adoption of this
fashion in Mogadishu is in imitation of Kilwa, rather than directly, if this
may be correct, of Egypt.

Perhaps the most interesting of the new finds at Mogadishu are a series
of eleven rulers whose coins bear the tughra, the beautiful decorative
monogram characteristic of Turkish coinage which first made its appearance
in I402. The Turks did not capture Cairo until 15I7, and did not take
the Yemen until I547. It is unlikely that the fashion should have spread to
Mogadishu before then. Monclaro records Turkish raids as far as the
vicinity of Malindi in I569, while the incursions of the Amir 'Ali Bey as
far as Mombasa and Pemba in I587-9 represented for a time a serious
threat to Portuguese hegemony. It may perhaps be correct to regard the
adoption of this fashion at Mogadishu as a bold assertion both of her independence
of the Portuguese, whom she never acknowledged, and of her
sympathy with Turkish aims. It seems probable that these issues continued
into the seventeenth century, but there is no record that Mogadishu ever
more than formally acknowledged the Turkish Caliphs. Apart from the
evidence of these coins, we have only Portuguese information as to Turkish
activities, and it is to be hoped that someone may be inspired to search
Turkish sources, and to determine their aims and activity more precisely.
Certainly the Portuguese feared a renewal of Turkish activity far into the
seventeenth century."



"COINS FROM MOGADISHU, c. 1300 to c. 1700 -
During 1957 the late Dr. John Walker, Keeper of Coins and Medals in the
British Museum, arranged for me to have access to an important private collection
of coins in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia, amounting to over 7,500 pieces.
These have now been studied in conjunction with the collection of the Mogadishu
Museum, a small collection in the British Museum, a description'of some coins
found in Somalia by Professor Enrico Cerulli, of Rome, and some specimens of
Mogadishu origin found in Tanzania, at Kilwa and in the Mafia Islands. This
work has presented considerable technical difficulties, but it is now at press
and will shortly be published in the Numismatic Chronicle, 1964. An offprint
of the work will be placed in the Iibrary.
This study is important for a number of reasons. It includes the first dated
coin from East Africa, dated 1322. It shows that the coinage of Mogadishu was
related to the coinage of Kilwa, in that both coinages have the characteristic
rhyme between the legends of the obverse and reverse. It appears to show that
when the Turkish naval commander Amir A)i Bey raided the East African coast
in the late 16th Century, Mogadishu was able to defy the Portuguese for a long
period, perhaps the whole of the 17th Century, in employing a local coinage
which followed the Turkish pattern, thus proclaiming an attitude of independence
in regard to the Portuguese. It includes no less than twenty-six rulers of whom
all but three are new both to numismatics and to history."



AJURAN CURRENCY;

Ajuran currency was an old coinage system minted in the Ajuran Sultanate. The polity was a Somali Muslim kingdom that ruled over large parts of the Horn of Africa during the Middle Ages.[1] The Ajuran Sultanate maintained an active commercial network with other contemporaneous polities in the Arabian peninsula, Near East and Central Asia. Many ancient bronze coins inscribed with the names of Ajuran Sultans have been found in the coastal Benadir province in southern Somalia, in addition to pieces from the Sultanate's Islamic trading partners in Southern Arabia and Persia.

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Banknotes;


The shilling has been the currency of parts of Somalia since 1921, when the East African shilling was introduced to the former British Somaliland protectorate. Following independence in 1960, the somalo of Italian Somaliland and the East African shilling (which were equal in value) were replaced at par in 1962 by the Somali shilling. Names used for the denominations were cent (singular: centesimo; plural: centesimi) and سنت (plural: سنتيمات and سنتيما) together with shilling (singular: scellino; plural: scellini) and شلن.




"The first currency specific to Italian Somaliland was issued between 1893 and 1896 by V. Filonardi & Company, a private trading company run by Vincenzo Filonardi, Italy’s former consul at Zanzibar. Filonardi’s 5-rupia notes were promissory notes not intended to replace the currencies then circulating in Italian Somaliland, including the Indian rupee and the Maria Theresa thaler. Official banknotes were introduced in 1920 by the Banca d'Italia. These were cash certificates (buoni di cassa) in denominations of 1, 5 and 10 rupie. 10 and 20 rupie were printed but not issued."


V. FILONARDI & C.
Rupia System


1893 Issue
5 Rupie

- 5 Rupie




BANCA D'ITALIA - opened a branch in Mogadishu in 1920

1920-1921 Issue


- 1 RUPIA


- 5 RUPIE


- 10 RUPIE







BANCA D'ITALIA
SERIE SPECIALE - AFRICA ORIENTALE ITALIANA
Lira System


1938-1939 "Serie Speciale" Overprint Issue - Italian east africa


- 50 LIRE


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SOMALO SYSTEM (Trust Territory of Somaliland) 1950 - 1960
The Somalo (plural: Somali, صومالي) was the currency of the Trust Territory of Somaliland administered by Italy between 1950 and 1960. The "Somalo" remained officially in use in the newly created Republic of Somalia until 1962. It was subdivided In 100 Centesimi (singular: Centesimo)



- 1 SOMALI 1950


- 5 Somali 1950


- 10 Somali 1950


- 20 Somali 1950


- 20 Somali 1950

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Historical bank notes of Djibouti

"From 1884, when the French Somaliland protectorate was established, the French franc circulated alongside the Indian rupee and the Maria Theresa thaler. These coexisted with 2 francs = 1 rupee and 4.2 francs = 1 Maria Theresa thaler.

From 1908, francs circulating in Djibouti were legally fixed at the value of the French franc. Starting in 1910, banknotes were issued for the then colony by the Bank of Indochina. Chamber of Commerce paper money and tokens were issued between 1919 and 1922.

In 1948, the first coins were issued specifically for use in Djibouti, in the name of the "Côte Française des Somalis". In 1949, an independent Djiboutian franc came into being when the local currency was pegged to the US dollar at a rate of 214.392 francs = 1 dollar. This was the value which the French franc had had under the Bretton Woods system until a few months before. Consequently, the Djiboutian economy was not affected by the further devaluations of the French franc.

In 1952, the Public Treasury took over the production of paper money. French Somaliland's change of name in 1967 to the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas was reflected on both the territory's coins and notes. In 1971 and 1973, the franc was revalued against the US dollar, first to a rate of 197.466 to the dollar, then 177.721, a rate which has been maintained ever since. A further change in coin and banknote design followed independence in 1977."



DJIBOUTI / FRENCH SOMALILAND
BANQUE DE L'INDOCHINE
Franc System


D. 1875, 1888, 1900 & 1901

1909-1919 Issue


- 5 Francs


- 10 francs


- 100 francs


CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE

L. 30.11.1919 Issue

- 5 CENTIMES
- 10 CENTIMES

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-100 FRANCS



- 1000 FRANCS


FRENCH SOMALI COAST
CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS
TRÉSOR PUBLIC


ND (1952) Issue


- 50 FRANCS


- 100 FRANCS

- 500 FRANCS
- 500 FRANCS

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- 1000 FRANCS
- 1000 FRANCS


- 5000 FRANCS






FRENCH AFARS & ISSAS TERRITORY
"In 1952, the Public Treasury took over the production of paper money. French Somaliland's change of name in 1967 to the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas was reflected on both the territory's coins and notes. In 1971 and 1973, the franc was revalued against the US dollar, first to a rate of 197.466 to the dollar, then 177.721, a rate which has been maintained ever since. A further change in coin and banknote design followed independence in 1977"

TERRITOIRE FRANÇAIS DES AFARS ET DES ISSAS
TRÉSOR PUBLIC

ND (1969) Issue



- 5000 FRANCS


ND (1973-1974) Issue



- 500 FRANCS


- 1000 FRANCS

ND (1975) Issue
 
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