The Baardheere Jihad: The Forgotten Somali Jihad Against the Geledi Sultanate

Discussion in 'Culture & History' started by Crow, Jul 14, 2018.

  1. Crow

    Crow Make Hobyo Great Again

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    https://muslimsinafrica.wordpress.c...the-forgotten-somali-jihad-dr-moshe-terdiman/
     
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  2. Crow

    Crow Make Hobyo Great Again

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  3. Crow

    Crow Make Hobyo Great Again

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    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bardera
    [​IMG]
     
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  4. Grant

    Grant VIP

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    "And this is exactly what happened during the 1830s, when the Baardheere Jama’ah spread its influence in most of the inter-riverine region between the Shabeelle and the Jubba rivers. In the mid-1830s, the Baardheere Jama’ah decided to expand its sphere of influence to the surrounding clans and, thus, entered a militant phase, first under Sheikh Ali Duure and Sheikh Abiker Aden Dhurow then under Sherif Abdirahman and Sherif Ibrahim. They fought the Oromo Borana to the west of the Jubba River, they conquered farming settlements to the southeast of Baardheere, they attacked and destroyed the trading town of Luuq on the Jubba River to the north, and, finally, in 1840, they extended their rule to the coast, conquering the villages of Baidoa, Molimad, and the coastal town of Baraawe (Brava), the historic seat of the Qadiriyyah Order, forcing its inhabitants, who appealed to the Sultan of Zanzibar for protection, to submit to the new regulations and to pay an annual tax.[24"

    ""Therefore, it is no surprise that the conquest of Barrawe and the dramatic success of the Baardheere Jama’ah provoked a concerted response from the clans of the inter-river areas under the charismatic leadership of the Geledi Sultan. The Sultanate mobilized an expedition force of 40,000 from all clans, and after a few days of siege, stormed Baardheere and completely burned it, while all its inhabitants were killed or fled. With the deaths of Sherif Abdirahman and Sherif Ibrahim in battle, the first instance of jihad in southern Somalia and in Somalia in general came to an end. [28]"

    Takeaways:

    There were still Oromo on the west bank of the Jubba after 1830. The river was a limit more than a resource. It was the inter-river area that was under control.

    Bardera and Geledi split control of the interior South 1830-1840, with Bardera taking control of the interior trade routes and pushing for access to a port. Had they been successful, this would have given Bardera a dominant position and threatened everybody else in the South.

    Baraawe appealed to the Sultan of Zanzibar, not the Geledi.

    The inter-river clans and the Banadir, with the probable approval and support of Zanzibar, all threw their support behind the Geledi, just as the same groups would later support the Biimaal against the Geledi when Sultans Yusuf and later Ahmad also tried to seize their own port and dominance in the South. The clans united to prevent any one clan from getting too much control. I think I sense a pattern here.

    Nobody got Bardera.
     
  5. Crow

    Crow Make Hobyo Great Again

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    Where did you get that? That isn't what was written in the article.
    It was destroyed by Geledi.
     
  6. Factz

    Factz VIP

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    Interesting. Apparently, Sultan Yusuf and his 40 thousand Digil forces liberated Barawa and destroyed Bardheere, re-opened Luuq trade and Sultan Yusuf became the new political and religious leader in the region. The only southern Somalis that refused his leadership and authority were Bimaal. Bardheere eventually came under control of Geledi Sultanate, you even once said Geledi controlled Gedo. Also, remember when you denied Geledi Sultanate having presence in Lower Jubba? Did you know Geledi Sultanate and Bimaal Sultanate were competing their dominance in Lower Jubba?

    [​IMG] [​IMG]

    Link: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=dR5yCmUejWEC&pg=PA200&dq=GELEDI+BIMAAL&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjzkZ20vaLcAhWDJMAKHVASAnwQ6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=GELEDI BIMAAL&f=false
     
    Last edited: Jul 16, 2018
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  7. Grant

    Grant VIP

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    "in 1840, they extended their rule to the coast, conquering the villages of Baidoa, Molimad, and the coastal town of Baraawe (Brava), the historic seat of the Qadiriyyah Order, forcing its inhabitants, who appealed to the Sultan of Zanzibar for protection, to submit to the new regulations and to pay an annual tax.[24"
     
  8. Grant

    Grant VIP

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    Nice, and you even got it linked! Indiana University strikes again.

    Yusuf did not have 40,000 Digil troops. His forces were a coalition that included support from the Banadir and included the Biimaal. He lost against the Biimaal and was killed when his former allies switched sides after it appeared he was becoming too powerful.

    Notice the competition for control of the South. Here it was split at least three directions: Bardera, Geledi and Biimaal, with Zanzibar always in the background.

    The Boran Oromo were on the west bank of the Jubba. Geledi ruled northeast of Afgoye, Bay, Bakool and Gedo. They didn't control anything on the Jubba south of Bucale. Bardera burned Luq and seized the interior trade. Geledi took it back in 1843 but lost the whole kit and kaboodle five years later when they lost to the new coalition put together by the Biimaal. No one single group controlled all of the South until the Italians.
     
  9. Factz

    Factz VIP

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    Sir, it would be honourable if you could just be honest for once. I just gave you the source stating that they were 40 thousand Digil forces and Bu'ale is in middle Jubba, yet Geledi Sultanate also had a presence in Lower Jubba according to the sources.

    Let's not forget Geledi Sultanate was a federation of Rahanweyn clans led by the Gobroon dynasty (Geledi leadership). According to this source tells you Geledi ruled from Luuq to Mogadishu as far as south of Barawa so basically further south passing Barawa. Most of Lower Shabelle was actually under Geledi Sultanate except for Merca.

    [​IMG]

    Remember when you were talking about Gosha? Did you know they were slaves of Jiddu and Dabarre clans in Lower Jubba that worked on Jubba plantation and did you know these two Digil sub-clans I mentioned were part of an alliance federation under Geledi?

    It tells you Gosha did not own any land in middle Jubba or lower Jubba but they were slaves working for Rahanweyn on the plantation to help boost the Geledi Sultanate economy. It also tells you Gosha were Bantus that came through the port of Barawa and Merca but I remember you arguing with you and telling me they were natives and had their own Sultanate. We all know that is pure bullshit and you made that up. I'm not going to insult you but I just don't like liars.

    Here were it says Gosha were slaves from Kenya that were collected and brought into Somali ports like Merca and Barawa and they were brought into Lower Jubba to work on the plantation for Rahanweyn.

    [​IMG]

    Here is a source telling you Lower Jubba was dominated by Digil sub-clans who were part of Geledi Sultanate. By the way, if you read my other link at the top tells you Rahanweyn were governed by the Geledis and I also showed you Lower Jubba also had Geledi governance so you cannot deny it.

    [​IMG]

    It tells you how Gosha were nothing but slaves working for Somalis specifically Rahanweyn.

    Link: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id...ILjAB#v=onepage&q=gosha slaves geledi&f=false
     
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  10. Grant

    Grant VIP

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    Now you're foaming brown at the mouth. Your link doesn't have the critical pages 47-63, but you should have done better than you did with this:

    Page 64:

    upload_2018-7-17_18-41-19.png


    The slave trade began about 1825 and slaves were escaping into the Lower Jubba by 1840. They settled at first among speakers of their own languages, but all but the Mushunguli later adopted Maay. By 1875 the Gosha villages had begun to coalesce and by 1890 they were able to defeat the combined Ogaden clans and keep them away from the river. Nassib Bundo had treaties with the British, Zanzibar, the Tunnis and Baraawe. He claimed to be, and was recognized as, Sultan of the Gosha. Only the Italians beat him.

    The children referred to in your quote above were recently enslaved in the 1870s, had escaped and were making their way into the Upper Gosha in the 1880s, which by then was a totally different ballgame. The area of enslavement was mostly in the Middle and Lower Shabelli and the Jubba was available because it was only sparsely inhabited by the Boni. Early on, the Oromo still held the west bank and the camel clans avoided the Gosha because of tsetse.

    Keep in mind that the Lower Jubba is larger than just the Gosha and that settlement moved up the river from Yontoy. The Dabarre are stretched between the Jubba and Shabelli and don't approach either the river. or the Gosha settlements in the Lower Jubba.

    The Gosha farmed for themselves.

    [​IMG]
     
  11. Factz

    Factz VIP

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    Firstly, Rahanweyn lost a lot of lands in Jubbaland so showing me a map of their current territory is meaningless. Everybody knows about the Darood expansion against the weakened Geledi Sultanate. By the way, not only Dabarre were mentioned but Jiddu and Garre were also mentioned which are Digil sub-clans and last time I checked Digil are Rahanweyn who were part of the Geledi Sultanate.

    This source tells you exactly that Geledi Sultanate and Bimaal Sultanate were competing for control in Lower Jubba meaning they had some form of governance there and it shouldn't be surprising since Rahanweyn sub-clans dominated Lower Jubba.

    [​IMG]

    Nassib Bundo himself was a slave until a local Tunni man from Barawa freed him. Gosha ex-slaves that escaped from Geledi Sultanate may have established a small enclave but it wasn't a Sultanate. I mean the Gosha ex-slaves didn't even own lands in Lower Jubba.

    [​IMG]

    Heck, the ex-slaves even gained protection from Digil sub-clans in Lower Jubba just to allow their small enclave to exist. But what's interesting is most Gosha were still in fact enslaved.
     
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  12. TekNiKo

    TekNiKo VIP

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    Bardheere deserved to be burned, it was a Wahabbi stronghold at the time.
     
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  13. Grant

    Grant VIP

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    Hogwash.

    You seem to have missed where the Gosha defeated the combined Ogaden clans and had treaties with the British, etc. Mohammed Abdulle Hassan even sought Nassib Bundo as an ally.

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nassib_Bundo

    "Around 1885 Nassib Bundo was recognized as the head of several villages. He established a "Sultanate Goshaland" as a political and military unit of several villages and was recognized by Zanzibar and later by the advancing European colonial powers as "Sultan". Using firearms acquired through trade with Zanzibar, the Gosha residents succeeded under his leadership to defeat the Ogadeni-Darod around 1890. These had previously traded with the former slaves, but also repeatedly invaded villages. On the other hand, he agreed with parts of the nomadic Somali clans of the Biimal and Sheekhaal to refrain from taking slaves who escaped from them in his villages; maybe he even refunded some of them.

    To consolidate his power, Nassib Bundo combined Islamic and traditional African mysticism. In traditions he is said to have supernatural abilities, such as that he could use wild animals in his favor. So he is said to have sent the crocodiles of the Jubba River against his rivals within the Gosha, and he threatened heads of families who refused to give him their daughters into marriage. From the villages below, he is said to have demanded virgins as a tribute, moreover, he should have claimed a substantial part of the existing prosperity for themselves.

    The colonial powers Great Britain and Italy, which invaded the area around 1890, both sought to secure Nassib Bundo's support by offering him a scholarship. However, Nassib Bundo remained suspicious of them and was keen to maintain his position within the Gosha. Around 1903, he allegedly had correspondence with Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, who led a rebellion against the colonizers in northern Somalia and sought allies in the south. After all, there were other Gosha leaders - including his own son - who complained to the Italians about his rule. Nassib Bundo was arrested and died in 1906 in a prison in Mogadishu of old age and disease [5] ".
     
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  14. Factz

    Factz VIP

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    Did you edit that Wiki page? :lolbron: It has no reference number to it. :patrice:

    I didn't misread that sir. It says an oral tradition so you never know, Gosha probably made that up just to have some form of respect. Many oral traditions in Somalia is not true and I admit that. However, a Bantu having a Sultanate in southern Somalia is the most bizarre thing to say.
    :damn::dead:

    @nine Come in and educate him about this Darood expansion. He claims y'all got karbashed by ex-slave Bantus.
    :mjlaugh:
     
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  15. nine

    nine زومالي و افتخر

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    @Grant @Factz

    ".........the Ogaden had by the mid-1870s reached the river Sabaki/Galana near Lamu on the coast, having forced the retreating Wardei to cross the river. While there, they marked tribal symbols on trees and deliberated on whether to settle or not. They finally decided not to settle around the Sabaki River because of tsetse fly which the Somali pastoralists feared would decimate their livestock and people.20 From this evidence one can conclude that the Warder w~re completely overwhelmed by the Ogaden expansion and that had it not been for the arrivdl of Imperial British East African Company rule in 1885, the Wardei would have ceased to exist as a community with a separate cultural and political identity.........."

    Source: COLONIAL POLICIES AND THE FAILURE-~. OF SOMALI SECESSIONISM IN THE NORTHERN FRONTIER DISTRICT OF KENYA COLONY, c.1890-1968

    "To the east the Somalis were once more on the move. After 1850 one of the Darod Somali groups, the Marehan crossed the Juba river in force. In 1865 they went on to break the Tana Galla and by 1880 had turned on the Boran. Pagan peoples in this region were now being dominated by Muslims, and peasants by nomads from the north."

    Source: The New Encyclopaedia Britannica Issue 1974
     
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  16. nine

    nine زومالي و افتخر

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  17. Crow

    Crow Make Hobyo Great Again

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    Really? Their beliefs mentioned in the article seem reasonable to me aside from the elephant nonsense. :mjlol: Were they actual khawarij and did they make takfir on the Geledis?
    :cosbyhmm:
     
  18. Grant

    Grant VIP

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    Doesn't change anything. The Gosha beat the combined forces of the Ogaden in 1890 and kept them away from the Jubba. This only confirms the Oromo on the west bank after 1830. The Boni were the only competition for the Gosha within the gol.

    Clan map circa 1977:

    The Gosha is in pink. The Digil are in green. The Ogaden replace the Oromo on the west bank of the Jubba well after the initial settlement of the Gosha villages.

    [​IMG]
     
    Last edited: Jul 18, 2018
  19. Grant

    Grant VIP

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    I didn't edit anything. The article is in German, but has a translation feature. This is at least the third time I have posted that link for you. You just make stuff up, and then don't read the response.
     
    Last edited: Jul 18, 2018
  20. Grant

    Grant VIP

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    Same situation as on the Jubba:

    " They finally decided not to settle around the Sabaki River because of tsetse fly which the Somali pastoralists feared would decimate their livestock and people.20 "
     
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