Regarding "Bantus" in Somalia.

@Burqad they are og oromo but when so migrated they became mixed.
 

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The Oromo word for Somali is jiddu because jiddu were the western-most Somalis before the migrations
Yes, true.

Personally, I don’t believe groups like Boni have pre Cushitic aboriginal origins.you believe differently? They seem more like Somalis who adopted a different lifestyle than the pastoralist at some point in time. This can happen as you see with this story where a man from a pastoral clan goes through these stages to become a leader of a new community identity:

Another factor attracting ex-slaves was a Katwa leader, named Avatula or Futula bin Bwana Hero. The Katwa were pastoralist groups of Somali origin, who practiced pastoralism at first but gradually acquired a sedentary lifestyle.58Some clans lived on the island of Pate and slowly gained political and social power. The leader, Avatula, was born on this island and, after a military defeat against an opposing clan, fled to the mainland into the forest, where he managed to gather fighters among the local people. He recognized the authority of the Sultan of Witu by paying him an annual tribute. At first, he settled in Balawa, with Boni clients and maroon slaves, but later he established himself further north in Starani, supported by his fugitive slave allies. By 1889, according to German sources, he was more independent, controlled five other large villages, no longer paid tribute to Witu, and had an army of 1,000 armed soldiers”.

Boni and Eeylo seem like Somali hunters mixed with runaway or freed slave communities. I don’t know enough about Makane, Shiidle, etc., to make a comment. BTW these Somali “hunters”were engaging in craft, trade, and pottery making. Their culture was never always a continuity or modern relic of some hunters who forage full time time in certain parts of South East Africa. The Boni were also engaging in slave raiding, sometimes alongside freed slaves,and selling them to Somalis, crazy………



Some fugitive slaves, however, mainly those who lived in the forest, also participated actively in the slave trade. This phenomenon is not unique to refugees from slavery in the Witu area and has been studied in other parts of Africa.84 It was often even essential for the survival of these groups. The former slaves organized raids with their Boni allies on the cultivated areas of the mainland across from Lamu town, capturing slaves who worked there as well as cattle. In the 1870s and 1880s, several attacks took place on the villages of Mpeketoni and Mkumbi near Lamu. In 1881, in reaction, slave owners attempted a counterattack against their assailants without waiting for the military support promised by the Sultan of Zanzibar; however, they had to retreat after seven of them were killed.85 As a consequence of these raids from the forest, the number of slaves remaining in the mainland plantations of Lamu was small by the 1880s. Fearing the raids, the enslaved used to live together in villages far from the plantations.86 It is worth noting that the women and men captured by the runaways and Boni already had a servile status. Thus, these slaves were doubly enslaved, as earlier in their lives they had experienced a first enslavement in their region of origin or been born into servility. This new enslavement brought them back to the “beginning of the chain.” They became captives, removed from the social links they had established in slavery, were forced to walk on the slave trade roads again, and were sold to a new master. These individuals, with double (or even more?) enslavements, may have been common in East Africa, where it was not rare for a slave to have had several masters during a lifetime.87 In Pemba, for instance, Elisabeth McMahon noted that it was a “usual event” for freed slaves to become re-enslaved by kidnapping.88

The slaves captured by the Boni and fugitive slaves’ raids were regularly brought back to Somali traders. They usually went to forest villages where slaves were kept before they were exchanged, most typically for cattle, according to the British traveler John Haggard in 1884.89 The captured slaves were also offered to the Sultan of Witu. He sometimes chose to sell them back to their ex-masters in exchange for a ransom, in order not to exacerbate tensions with them. Indeed, during the second half of the 19th century, the sultan tried to maintain stable relations with the governor of Lamu, the representative of Zanzibari power on the northern coast.

 

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